Spatial Memory

Nearly 70 years ago, psychological scientist Edward Tolman introduced the idea that humans and other animals have a “cognitive map” that allows them to navigate their everyday spatial environments. Evidence of physical processes underpinning cognitive maps emerged in 1971 with breakthrough research based on recorded brain activity in freely moving More

Participants in the 2016 Presidential Symposium hosted by APS President C. Randy Gallistel included Nobel Laureate Edvard Moser of Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, pioneering cognitive psychologist Barbara Tversky of Columbia University, pictured, neurobiologist Randolf Menzel of Freie Universität Berlin in Germany, and cognitive More