The History of APS: A Timeline

In honor of the 20th Anniversary of APS, we have created a special area of the website devoted to celebrating the last 20 years of APS history. This section features an interactive timeline of APS history detailing the vision of our founders and the success story that is APS.

1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


August 12 – Following a failed attempt to reorganize the American Psychological Association to improve the status of science within the organization, members of the Assembly for Scientific and Applied Psychology (ASAP) vote to become the American Psychological Society. The vote is a resounding 419 to 13.

The fundamental goals for APS are to provide a strong and separate voice for scientific psychology and to take back the image of psychology. APS also adopts the informal motto of “lean and nice” to guide Society activities, with additional emphasis on efficiency, effectiveness, and minimal bureaucracy.

Charles Kiesler

Charles Kiesler, former Executive Officer of APA, is President of ASAP and oversees the transition to APS.

Janet Spence

Janet Spence becomes the first member-elected APS President.

APS’s Founding Mothers and Fathers

APS’s founding mothers and fathers include (front row, left to right) Judith Goggin, Janet Spence, Chuck Kiesler, Ginny O’Leary, (second row, left to right) Dorothy Eichorn, Milt Hakel, Bonnie Strickland, Steve Hayes, Nan Anderson, (back row, left to right) Kitty Katzell, Sandra Scarr, Logan Wright, Kathy Grady and hundreds of scientific psychologists who supported the budding organization.

Logan Wright

Fall – APS is incorporated and the first APS “Logistics Office” is established at the University of Oklahoma by the late Logan Wright. Prior to the opening of the Washington office in 1989, APS administration, membership, convention and publishing were accomplished by volunteers throughout the country.

October – First issue of the APS Newsletter is published. Our first typo appears on page 2.


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Steven C. Hayes

January – Steven C. Hayes, University of Nevada, is the first official editor of the APS Newsletter.


APS Summit on Scientific Advocacy is a huge success (January 1989 in Norman, Oklahoma). The Summit is a gathering of representatives from over 40 psychological organizations, to discuss the role of scientific advocacy, the enhancement of psychology as a coherent scientific discipline, the protection of scientific values in education and training, the use of science in the public interest, and the scientific values of psychological practice. The Summit serves to open dialogue on often ignored issues integral to psychological science.

APS Newsletter

March – The APS Newsletter (Volume 2, No. 2) becomes the Observer. The official “Namer of the Newsletter” is Carol Tavris

Carol Tavris

William K. Estes

William K. Estes is selected to be the founding editor of Psychological Science, APS’s flagship journal. At the time, Estes is the William James Professor of Psychology at Harvard University and is living in the William James house in Cambridge. Later, he often said he edited the first issues of Psychological Science in the same corner of the house where William James edited Principles of Psychology.

William James House, Cambridge, MA

APS Membership reaches more than 5,000 in less than a year, leading to our informal self-designation as “the fastest growing scientific society in the (known) universe.”

First APS Convention

June 10-12, 1989 – Over a thousand psychological scientists and scientist practitioners attend the historic first APS convention in Arlington, VA. This turnout exceeds everyone’s expectations. The hotel must be changed at the last minute to accommodate all the attendees and the very first APS reception is held in a parking lot. The neighbors, we are told, complained.

George A. Miller

George A. Miller is the Keynote speaker for the first APS convention. He goes on to win the National Medal of Science in 1991. Coincidence? We think not.
June 1989 – The APS Student Caucus is formed, by a self selected group of student attendees at the first convention. The Caucus has since played a central role in APS, helping to plan our conventions, create student grants and awards, and offering a student perspective to the APS Board as overall decisions are made.

Alan Kraut

August 1989 – Alan Kraut begins as first APS Executive Director. Kraut, who received his PhD in developmental psychology from Syracuse University in 1977, was previously head of science programs at APA. Kraut’s appointment was announced at the June 10-12 convention. The neighbors, we are told, complained.
August 7 – First APS Washington office opens, above a liquor store in a seedy side of Capitol Hill, definitely not zoned for a non-profit science organization. The neighbors, we are told, complained.


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Psychological Science: The Legend Begins

January – The first issue of Psychological Science is published. William Estes, founding editor, distinctly captures the need for the new journal amongst the legions of other by stating,

“Helping psychologists keep up with their field would be a sufficient purpose for the new journal, but we mean to set our sights still higher and try to serve some functions that have been largely missed by the present journal armamentarium-promoting interdisciplinary knowledgeability on the part of psychologists and presenting scientific psychology to people outside our field.”

Read Estes’ full editorial at

Special Observer on HCI

APS organizes a second Summit on Scientific Advocacy. Representatives from nearly 70 behavioral science organizations develop a framework for a national behavioral science research agenda. This research agenda is ultimately presented in the Human Capital Initiative (HCI). The HCI targets six critical contemporary problems facing the nation, communities, and families that can be helped by psychological science. The reports produced by the HCI project examine issues of worker productivity, schools and literacy, the aging society, drug and alcohol abuse, mental and physical health, and violence in American society. View all HCI reports on the APS Web site at
Summit on Scientific Advocacy participants vote in favor of a separate directorate for behavioral science research at the National Science Foundation, the leading federal agency for basic research.
March 1990 – APS makes the issue of a separate directorate for behavioral science research a priority. In a letter to an ad hoc NSF task force studying the issue of a separate directorate, Alan Kraut explains the issue:

“I hope your Task Force considers a qualitatively different strategy – one that recognizes that decision making at the upper levels of NSF is a political process, and we cannot expect to be treated fairly in this political decision making until there is a behavioral or social scientists represented at the Assistant Director level. For me, our highest NSF priority should be a separate Directorate for Behavioral and Social Science. “

The task force ultimately recommends in favor of a separate directorate. The neighbors, we are told, complain.

The APS Board establishes the first of APS’s two lifetime achievement awards: the William James Fellow Award for Basic Research. The first recipients are William Estes and Francis Graham. Estes goes on to win the National Medal of Science in 1997. Coincidence? We think not.

William James

William K. Estes

Francis Graham

First APS member directory

July 1990 – The First APS member directory is published. APS is 10,000 members strong. APS student caucus membership hits 3,000. View the current Member Directory by logging into the APS Web site at

Nancy Cantor

Fall 1990 – Responding to APS-inspired pressure from Congress, the National Science Foundation forms another task force to study the possibility of a separate directorate for behavioral and social science research, which at the time is lumped with biological science. Nancy Cantor, at the time an APS Board member and now Chancellor and President of Syracuse University, is the only psychologist on the panel. More than 60 scientific organizations present testimony to the task force, conveying an overwhelming consensus in favor of the separate directorate.
APS becomes the Washington headquarters for the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), providing advocacy for science policy relating to child development research, and overseeing a new policy fellowship program. Among the joint APS-SRCD achievements are an Executive Branch Fellowship Program at Federal agencies and new programs at the National Institute on Child Health and Human Development for research in normative behavioral development on ethnic minorities and in middle childhood development.


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APS membership reaches 12,500. Still the fastest growing scientific society in the (known) universe!

APS Headquarters

September – The APS Washington, DC, headquarters moves to its current location on Vermont Avenue.

Gordon Bower

Gordon Bower is elected APS President. He goes on to win the 2005 National Medal of Science. Coincidence? We think not.

October – Following more than a year of Congressional pressure and the National Science Foundation (NSF) resistance, both of which escalated in equal measure, the director of NSF announces the establishment of a separate directorate for behavioral and social science research.
APS advocacy in Congress and the National Institute of Mental Health leads to the establishment of a series of behavioral science research centers by NIMH.


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Sandra Scarr

Founding co-editors Sandra Scarr and Charles R. Gallistel launch Current Directions in Psychological Science, APS’s second journal. Current Directions in Psychological Science provides valuable insight into trends and controversies in psychology. Written by leading experts in terms that are accessible outside of the realm of research subspecialties, the reviews published in Current Directions in Psychological Science cover such current topics as theory of mind, neural bases of memory; face recognition, expression of emotion, cognition and aging, and attachment and personality in mammals.
April – APS organizes a summit on Accreditation in Psychology. 139 participants representing 87 PhD programs overwhelmingly agree that alternative approaches to accreditation must be actively pursued, and an Accreditation Steering Committee is authorized to pursue alternatives.
October 1992 – APS helps ensure the preservation of the behavioral science mission with separate peer reviews of the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism – the research components of the former Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) – as they are transferred to the National Institute of Health.


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APS plays a central role in shaping the mission of the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research at the National Institutes of Health, ensuring that the office will focus on basic as well as applied behavioral research. APS is asked by NIH to organize a meeting of behavioral science representatives to help implement the new office.

Eleanor J. Gibson

June – Eleanor J. Gibson is the Keynote speaker for the 5th Annual APS convention. In the previous year, she receives the National Medal of Science. Coincidence? We think not.
APS successfully convinces NIMH to create a program to support new behavioral science investigators. Called B-START (Behavioral Science Track Awards for Rapid Transition), the program provides small grants that allow investigators to develop pilot data. In subsequent years, the B-START program received accolades from Congress, and was the model for similar programs at several other NIH institutes.
The first annual Teaching Institute is held at the APS convention.

James McKeen Cattell

First James McKeen Cattell Awards given to . This award recognizes APS Members for a lifetime of outstanding contributions to the area of applied psychological research. Click here to read more about the award.


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APS becomes the headquarters for the Society for Psychophysiological Research (SPR) and serves in that capacity for ten years, until SPR establishes a separate management office.
In keeping with APS’s role as facilitator in evaluating the need for a system of alternative accreditation, the APS Board provides funds to support the formation of a coalition of clinical science training programs. This coalition was the first step toward the establishment of the Academy of Psychological Clinical Science, which today has 55 member programs and is in the process of establishing a separate accreditation system for doctoral programs that emphasize research training.


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Rep. Robert Walker (R-PA)

Rep. Robert Walker (R-PA), chair of the Congressional committee that oversees NSF, proposes to eliminate funding for behavioral and social science research at the agency. APS plays a central role in the defense of NSF’s behavioral science programs, plus NSF’s deputy director Anne Petersen, a distinguished psychologist, makes the case for these programs at the highest levels of the agency and in Congress. Where similar proposals to cut behavioral science at NSF and other agencies had succeeded in the past, Walker’s attempt fails, and ironically, the attack leads to a new appreciation of b ehavioral science research among NSF’s leaders. APS is also credited with rallying other disciplines in resisting the Walker cuts, a key element in strengthening support and understanding of psychology science among other disciplines. Walker was voted out of office soon after. Coincidence? We think not.


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Psychological Science is ranked 8th for impact out of 90 psychology journals evaluated by the Institute for Scientific Information.

The National Science Foundation establishes a Human Capital Initiative program modeled on the HCI initiative generated at the earlier APS-convened summit.

Roger Shepherd

May – Roger Shepherd is the keynote speaker for the 8th Annual APS Convention. He won the National Medal of Science in the previous year. Coincidence? We think not. (Are you tired of this joke yet?)
Fall – APS helps guide the merger of the peer review systems of NIMH, NIDA and NIAAA into the NIH system and advocates for a stronger presence for behavioral scientists on NIH review committees.


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Blackwell Publishing (now Wiley-Blackwell) becomes the publisher of all APS journals, a relationship that continues to the present. Find online access to all APS journal at
NIMH Director Steven Hyman meets with the APS Board and indicates that there will be a new emphasis on translational research at the institute, to bring the knowledge from basic behavioral research to treatment and prevention. He stresses that NIMH will continue to provide strong support for basic behavioral research as a cornerstone of the institute’s portfolio, saying elsewhere that NIMH’s basic research portfolio has a “promissory note” that is coming due, and that the payback will be to translate and apply the knowledge generated in basic areas. Hyman also expresses his appreciation for APS’s efforts on behalf of NIMH.
Representatives of NIAAA, including the director, Enoch Gordis, meet with members of the APS Board and other leading psychological science researchers at the 9th APS annual convention to discuss ways to broaden NIAAA’s behavioral science portfolio to address such topics as craving, abstinence, relapse, social affiliation, peer relations, behavioral genetics, and other cognitive, social and emotional factors involved in alcohol use and dependence. The meeting results in several new behavioral science funding initiatives at the institute, which estimates that one-third of its budget goes to research studies by psychologists.


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April-May – APS organizes a summit meeting in Santa Barbara, CA, attended by representatives of more than 100 behavioral science organizations. Topics that are discussed include peer review, institutional review boards, interdisciplinary research, education and training, and mobilization of large-scale projects in psychological science. The group passes the following resolution on May 2.

The 1998 Summit of Psychological Science Societies:

  1. affirms the importance of psychological science to understanding behavior and experience;
  2. affirms the importance of evidence-based practice in assisting individuals and society;
  3. calls upon government and society to take greater advantage of existing psychological science;
  4. calls upon psychological scientists to equip themselves and their students and to educate the public, to address the issues of importance to society;
  5. shares a commitment to the breadth of scientific psychology; and
  6. charges the 1998 Summit Planning Committee to appoint a post-summit Steering Committee to prioritize and implement the recommendations developed by the various Summit working groups.

Current Directions is ranked 16th among psychology journals ranked by ISI on its first ranking.

APS 10th Anniversary

August – APS reaches its 10th Anniversary on August 7th, and the occasion is marked with a celebration at the 10th annual convention in Washington, DC.


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APS secures a large grant from the Administration for Children Youth and Families – now the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) – for the SRCD fellowship program, providing a strong platform for SRCD to expand its policy based operations and allowing SRCD to establish a separate office.

APS Observer

Spring – Via the Observer, the APS Board solicits members’ views on a proposal to change the Society’s name to “Association for Psychological Science.” The vast majority of responses are in favor of the change. The Board agrees to put the issue to a vote of the full membership and a mail ballot is conducted. The name change fails by a narrow margin.

Lessons Learned

Publication of APS’ first book, Lessons Learned: Practical Advice for the Teaching of Psychology, a compilation of Teaching Tips columns from the Observer. To order this or other APS books, please visit


The APS Board of Directors approves a unique new journal, Psychological Science in the Public Interest to provide definitive assessments of topics where psychological science may have the potential to inform and improve the well-being of society. APS Past President Robert Bjork and Board member Steven J. Ceci are selected as founding co-editors of PSPI. NIH and NSF provide planning support for the journal as part of their respective efforts to disseminate behavioral science research more broadly.

Robert Bjork (left) and Steven J. Ceci (right)


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William James

April – The APS Board establishes the William James Distinguished Lecture program with the goal of bringing nationally-known experts in psychological science to regional psychological association meetings. Stephen J. Ceci, Cornell University, delivers the inaugural lecture on Cognitive and Social Influences on the Reliability of Children’s Statements at the Western Psychological Association annual meeting.
April – NIMH issues a report on translational research in behavioral sciences. The report is developed by an advisory panel co-chaired by Robert Levenson and Anne Petersen. Recommendations included providing basic behavioral researchers with access to clinical populations, establishing translational research centers, and providing supplements for existing basic research projects to study clinical questions. Training is also highlighted as a critical topic. NIMH representatives later meet with the APS Board and pledge to make implementation of the recommendations a priority.


May – The first issue of Psychological Science in the Public Interest — “Psychological Science Can Improve Diagnostic Decisions” — is published. This and subsequent reports are re-written for a more general audience and printed in Scientific American.


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March – APS convenes a meeting of leading researchers to discuss strategies for bringing the science of learning to bear on educational practice. A direct outgrowth of the Santa Barbara Summit, “Applying the Science of Learning” is co-chaired by Diane Halpern and Milton D. Hakel. The initiative is sponsored by the Spencer Foundation, the Marshall-Reynolds Trust, the California State University at San Bernardino, and APS. It is the basis for the ongoing “Life Long Learning” program most recently held at the 2007 APS annual convention. The overall goal is to establish and pursue a research agenda that will advance the use of science in education.

Diane Halpern and Milton D. Hakel


May – APS holds its first international Convention in Toronto, Ontario.


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APS Website

APS journals are available online for the first time via the APS website at
The APS Convention goes online, with a Web-based submissions process and an interactive Convention Program.

Rochel Gelman

Under Board member Rochel Gelman, APS begins to specifically recruit distinguished international psychologists as APS Fellows. This marks the first of what will become many international APS efforts.


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Psychological Science in the Public Interest goes from two issues to three issues a year.

High School Teachers Read Free

APS establishes a program to provide free online access to Current Directions in Psychological Science for high school psychology teachers. To find out more about this program, please visit our Web site at
APS provides complimentary access to its journals at universities whose libraries are closed or restricted by quarantines due to the widespread outbreak of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in China and elsewhere.
APS establishes the Campaign for Advancing Psychological Science (CAPS), a program of annual giving. To make a donation, please visit our Web site at

In a joint venture with Prentice Hall, APS launches a series of readers that draw on articles from Current Directions in Psychological Science in broad areas of the field. Existing titles include:

  • Current Directions in Abnormal Psychology
  • Current Directions in Cognitive Science
  • Current Directions in Developmental Psychology
  • Current Directions in Health Psychology
  • Current Directions in Introductory Psychology
  • Current Directions in Personality Psychology
  • Current Directions in Social Psychology

For more information on these books please visit the Prentice Hall website at

Richard McFall

A festschrift honors distinguished clinical science researcher Richard McFall at the 15th APS annual convention, marking the first in an ongoing series of programs that are the basis for a book series, Modern Pioneers in Psychological Science, now published jointly with Psychology Press. Details on the series, including information on ordering the books, are available at


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January-APS’s flagship journal, Psychological Science, moves from bi-monthly to monthly, reflecting the large and growing volume of submissions. The journal continues to be among the top 10 psychology journals, as ranked by ISI.

Lessons Learned

Publication of Lessons Learned: Practical Advice for the Teaching of Psychology, Volume 2

David Myers

The David and Carol Myers Foundation pledges a $1 million endowment to APS to help establish the APS Fund for Teaching and Public Understanding of Psychological Science. That overall purpose shall beto enhance the teaching and public understanding of psychological science for students and the lay public, in the United States, Canada, and worldwide.

Psychologists and Journalists meet in St. Petersburg, Florida

October – APS organizes a meeting in St. Petersburg, Florida to examine the issues affecting public understanding of psychological science. Meeting participants include experienced correspondents and producers from National Public Radio, The Wall Street Journal, Dateline NBC, The Los Angeles Times, ABC Prime-Time Live, and Discovery Channel, as well as several “media-savvy” psychology researchers. It serves as a first step in planning a public outreach program and other activities that might be funded by the APS Fund for Teaching and Public Understanding of Psychological Science. Read more about this meeting in the Observer.
APS membership numbers 15,000.
August – APS reaches the age of 16. Can we get a drivers license?


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January – The Observer moves from a newsletter to a magazine format

APS publishes Voices of Experience: Memorable Talks from the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology.

Robert Levenson

May – The “Inside the Psychologist’s Studio” program is introduced at the 17th APS annual convention in Los Angeles, with APS President Robert Levenson interviewing Paul Ekman. Taking advantage of the LA location, the convention also includes a unique program on animating emotion, featuring Pixar director Pete Docter, whose work on Toy Story, Monsters, Inc., and other hits has drawn from Ekman’s work on facial expression of emotion.

Richard Nakamura

David Abrams

May – The APS Board meets with Richard Nakamura, deputy director of NIMH, and David Abrams, director of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research to convey concerns that NIH is continuing to ignore Congressional directives and other recommendations to strengthen basic behavioral science research. In particular, APS is concerned that NIMH appears to be narrowing its support for basic behavioral science.

This meeting is the latest milestone in an advocacy initiative that APS launched in the late 1990’s to establish a home for basic behavioral science at NIH’s “basic research” institute, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, which supports research and training in the most fundamental areas of inquiry. NIGMS and NIH leadership more generally have consistently resisted this effort despite escalating Congressional pressure and recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences and other broad science organizations. NIMH’s reduced support for basic behavioral research brings added urgency to the NIGMS issue


Anne C. Petersen

The APS Board proposes the Fund for the Advancement of Psychological Science and appoints Anne C. Petersen as chair of the initiative. Petersen, former deputy director of NSF and vice president of the Kellogg Foundation, brings an extensive background in fund raising to this position. Under her leadership, the Fund Committee will resume efforts to establish a program of major gifts to support expanded and new APS initiatives in scientific psychology. The Fund will focus on three target areas: Engaging the Public; International Issues; and Infrastructure for Psychological Science.
Following an accreditation meeting, it appears that a planned restructuring of the Committee on Accreditation will minimize representation of science in the accreditation process and exacerbate the already disparate treatment of clinical science training programs in the process. The Academy of Psychological Clinical Science asks APS to continue its role of facilitating the development of an alternative accreditation system.
Fall — APS establishes a directory of relocation opportunities for faculty and graduate students displaced by Hurricane Katrina.


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January 1 – The American Psycholog ical Society changes its name to the Association for Psychological Science following overwhelming member approval. The new name more accurately conveys APS’s commitment to science and reflects the international scope of its membership.

March – The first issue of APS’s fourth journal, Perspectives on Psychological Science, is launched, with founding Editor Ed Diener. More eclectic in its scope compared to other journals, Perspectives presents a lively mix of longer articles, theoretical statements, literature reviews, viewpoints and opinions, research presentations, and scholarship.

Ed Diener

APS Public Affairs Staff (from left) Catherine West, Wray Herbert, Jesse Erwin

May – APS establishes an expanded Public Affairs program with the hiring of veteran science writer and editor, Wray Herbert, whose psychological science blog is regularly featured on and consistently among the most viewed and most emailed on that website.

With support from the APS Fund for Teaching and Public Understanding of Psychological Science, APS establishes a Public Affairs internship, a public outreach internship for graduate students eager to use their psychology or communications background in disseminating the field’s research findings to the public. The first APS Public Affairs Intern is Jesse Erwin.

Erwin recently said about the position,
“the Public Affairs internship was designed to help strengthen the communications infrastructure at APS so I try to act as the ‘glue’ of the department. The bulk of my job consists of maintaining our contacts in both the media and academia to make sure that we stay current on new research and formulate ideas for potential articles. My favorite part of the job is reading articles. I read every one of our journals and craft press releases for as many articles as I can. It is difficult to pick and choose because there is so much interesting research going on.”

To learn more about Public Affairs at APS, click here .

May-APS Convention attendance hits a record 3,600 participants for the 18th Annual Convention in New York. Featured speakers include world-renown child development researcher Sir Michael Rutter, and authors Malcolm Gladwell and Tom Wolfe. A new format is introduced at the convention: themed programs that feature cross-cutting symposia, addresses, and posters in a comprehensive half-day session.

Sir Michael Rutter, Malcolm Gladwell, and Tom Wolfe

David Myers

The APS Teaching Fund establishes the David Myers Lecture on the Science and Craft of Teaching Psychological Science, delivered annually at the APS convention by a distinguished scientist/educator. David Myers delivers the inaugural address, “Teaching Psychological Science Through Writing.”
Fall – The APS Teaching Fund awards its first set of small grants. The Teaching Fund supports a program of small (i.e. less than $5,000) grants that provide seed money for projects to enhance teaching in psychological science. Read more about the inaugural grants in the Observer at


Psychological Science

Psychological Science is ranked 6th in psychology journals for impact. Current Directions in Psychological Science is ranked 16th in psychology journals for impact.


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Rob Kail (left) begins his term as the newest editor of Psychological Science, succeeding James Cutting (center top), whose term ends this year. Kail and Cutting are the latest in a line of distinguished editors, including founding editor William Estes (center bottom), John Kihlstrom (bottom right, and Sam Glucksberg (top right).

Lessons Learned

APS publishes the third volume of the popular Lessons Learned: Practical Advice for the Teaching of Psychology (Vol. 3). To order this or other APS books, please visit

Psychological Science Takes Over the World

The Observer features a new series on international psychological science, with articles by distinguished researchers from around the world.

APS membership is at 18,500, far exceeding the early expectations of the Board about the potential universe of members.
This is the first year that freshman college students are younger than APS. We’re not sure why we think that’s important, but maybe you can come up with a reason? The neighbors, we understand, complain.

2008 – A Preview

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In what we call our version of 20/20 vision, APS celebrates 20 years and 20,000 members (no doubt)!

January-Perspectives on Psychological Science goes to a bi-monthly schedule of publication.
For the first time, APS offers online-only subscriptions to all four of its journals. All APS members continue to have online access to the journals, including in-press articles, even if the online-only option is not selected.
Spring – Reflecting the continued growth of its publications, convention, membership, public affairs, and advocacy programs, APS will move to expanded office space in downtown Washington, DC.

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