Sleep Now, Laugh Later: Restricted Sleep Blunts Children’s Positive Emotional Responses
Candice A. Alfano, University of Houston
Inadequate sleep early in life robustly forecasts later affective disorders. Delineating precise mechanisms of risk requires examination of sleep-emotion relationships during childhood when both regulatory systems are developing. In this talk, findings will be presented from a novel, multimethod study using two nights of mild sleep restriction to examine alterations in various aspects of emotional processing among prepubescent children.
Self-Inflicted Injury as an Outcome of ADHD and Maltreatment: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective on Trait Impulsivity and Psychopathology for Girls
Theodore P. Beauchaine, The Ohio State University
For boys, development of ADHD into more serious externalizing behaviors is common in contexts of adversity. I present an alternative pathway for girls with ADHD who incur maltreatment—a group at alarming risk for self-injury. Imaging data that reveal aberrant incentive and emotion processing among adolescent self-injurers, which informs etiology.
Applying Latent Variable Models to Educational Assessment Beyond the Ivory Tower
Li Cai, University of California, Los Angeles
I present two case studies that illustrate the application of latent variable modeling in educational assessment. The first involves the development of a new English language proficiency assessment system (ELPA21). In the second application a popular measure for accountability purposes, Student Growth Percentile (SGP), is explored through latent variable modeling.
The Baby And the Bathwater: The Promise of Both Nomothetic And Idiographic Network Modeling
Angélique Cramer, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Should we abandon studying groups (nomothetic) altogether in favor of studying individuals (idiographic)? In the context of network modeling I discuss why such a move would be akin to throwing the baby out with the bathwater. In addition, I introduce some strategies for combining nomothetic and idiographic network modeling.
Incentives and Behavior Change
Uri Gneezy, University of California, San Diego
The assumption that all incentives are created equal can lead principals to construct inefficient pay programs that ignore the meaning of the incentives to the targeted agent. The starting point of the talk is the misleading separation between material compensation and psychological effects: Traditionally economists focus on extrinsic motivation such as money, while psychologists care more about intrinsic motivation such as job satisfaction. The presenter argues that this separation misses an important interaction effect: The signal sent by the principal in creating the incentives determines the meaning of pay. Considering this signal and its interpretation is crucial in optimizing pay. After discussing ways in which incentives affect intrinsic motivation in either positive or negative ways, the presenter will draw insights from behavioral economics research to demonstrate how small differences in the structure of such pay programs can change the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and thereby greatly influence effectiveness.
Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Neuroimaging Family Study
Vina Goghari, University of Toronto, Canada
In this talk, I will discuss a program of research that examines brain abnormalities in individuals with schizophrenia, their relatives, and controls. Research from three different imaging domains: morphology, structural connectivity, and functional connectivity – has yielded complementary evidence for disease-specific, genetic risk and compensatory brain mechanisms associated with schizophrenia.
Quantifying Mixed Emotions
Richard D. Gonzalez, University of Michigan
Who and What Is Included In Our Moral Circle?
Jesse Graham, University of Southern California
I present the idea of intrapersonally opposing forces in people’s circles of moral regard, pulling both inward to socially close others and outward to encompass distant people and animals. This view is applied to current moral debates about empathy (e.g., parochialism vs. universalism) and about politics (e.g., nationalism vs. globalism).
Emotion Regulation in Intractable Conflict: The Challenge and the Opportunity
Eran Halperin, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Israel
The talk will begin with an outline of the challenges of integrating insights from emotion-regulation research in the study of intergroup conflicts. The presenter will then proceed to detailing the contextual factors that must be taken into account when studying such processes, and then to a review of recent work studying various emotion regulation processes in different conflicts.
Psychopathology is Dimensional: So Now What?
Christopher J. Hopwood, University of California, Davis
I discuss two implications of dimensional models of psychopathology. First, an evidence-based structure provides a coherent framework for conceptualizing dynamics, which can be understood as within-person variation along between-person dimensions. Second, multidimensional models enable a novel synthesis of psychopathology and intervention variables that could transform applied research and practice.
Outcomes of ADHD Youth: Explanatory Factors And The Search For Causal Mechanisms
Steve S. Lee, University of California, Los Angeles
Despite significant evidence on outcomes of youth with ADHD, there is far less evidence on explanatory factors that underlie these predictions. This talk presents evidence on mediators of outcome, the need for elucidating causal mechanisms, and their implications for accelerating innovations in intervention and prevention.
Changing Social Norms
Elizabeth Levy-Paluck, Princeton University
How do social processes make what is “normal”? When do our perceptions of social norms shape our behavior? This talk delves into the kinds of processes that influence perceived social norms, like information, peer networks, and institutional signals, and asks when they shape important real world behaviors.
Master Narrative Negotiation: A Cultural Approach to Identity Development
Kate C. McLean, Western Washington University
The relation between personal and master narratives is examined by introducing an integrative framework to capture them and by providing empirical examples of its application. This model brings attention not only to the interaction between self and society but also to constraints on individual agency to construct a personal identity.
Reward Processing Abnormalities in Mood Disorders: A Translational Neuroscience Perspective
Robin R. Nusslock, Northwestern University
This talk presents data suggesting that risk for unipolar depression and bipolar disorder are characterized by distinct and opposite profiles of reward-related brain function. I will also discuss the implications of these data for understanding the pathophysiology of mood disorders, identifying biomarkers for depression versus bipolar disorder, and treatment development.
The End is the Beginning: Emotion Goals Drive Emotion Regulation
Maya Tamir, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Emotion regulation involves changing what people feel into what they want to feel. The presenter argues that what people want to feel shapes functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation. What people want to feel determines how hard people try to regulate emotions, which strategies they use, and how effective they ultimately are.