Read about the latest research published in Psychological Science:
Kensy Cooperrider, Tyler Marghetis, and Rafael Nunez
The principle of linear order is a fixture of industrialized societies; however, few studies have examined whether indigenous groups that lack exposure to representations of linear order (e.g., calendars, number lines, graphs) have an understanding of this principle. The present study examined differences in intuitions of linear order between the Yupno in Papua New Guinea and U.S. undergraduates. In three studies, participants were given sets of stimuli that could be ordered categorically (pieces of fruit and cards depicting animals) or stimuli that could be ordered linearly (cards depicting circles of different sizes and groupings of different numbers of dots) and were instructed to arrange them in an organized manner. The researchers found that although both U.S. and Yupno participants generally organized stimuli in the same way (organizing fruit and cards depicting animals by category and organizing cards depicting circles of different sizes and groups of different numbers of dots linearly), the two participant groups did differ in how and when they implemented these strategies. Despite these group differences, the results suggest that conventional spatial representations are not required for spontaneous linear representations to be manifested.
Joseph P. Simmons and Uri Simonsohn
In 2010, Carney, Cuddy, and Yap published an article suggesting that people who adopted expansive powerful postures had lower cortisol levels, higher testosterones levels, and sought more risk than those who adopted contracted powerless poses. A 2015 study by Ranehill, Dreber, Johannesson, Leiberg, Sul, and Weber failed to fully reproduce these findings. In a response to this replication attempt, Carney, Cuddy, and Yap (2015) provided support for their original findings by referencing a group of 33 successful studies that had examined the effects of expansive and contractive poses. Simmons and Simonsohn examined the evidentiary value of these 33 articles using p-curve analysis and, as they report in this article, found them lacking. The p-curve was consistent with what would be expected if the average effect size was zero and selective reporting were responsible for the published effects. Based on these findings, Simmons and Simonsohn suggest that the psychological effects of power posing be treated as a hypothesis currently lacking empirical support.