Read about the latest research published in Clinical Psychological Science:
Kelly L. Klump, Sarah E. Racine, Britny Hildebrandt, S. Alexandra Burt, Michael Neale, Cheryl L. Sisk, Steven Boker, and Pamela K. Keel
Studies have shown an association between changes in ovarian hormones and amounts of emotional eating women engage in across their menstrual cycles; however, researchers are still unsure whether this relationship differs for women with clinically diagnosed binge-eating episodes. For 45 consecutive days, women with and without a history of binge-eating episodes were assessed for emotional eating, binge-episode frequency, and level of ovulatory hormones. The researchers found that the levels of estrogen and progesterone associated with increases in binge eating were different in women with and without a history of binge-eating episodes. Future research should examine the mechanisms underlying this relationship with an eye toward developing treatments that reduce binge-eating behaviors.
Daniel Ewon Choe, Daniel S. Shaw, Luke W. Hyde, and Erika E. Forbes
Past research has shown that a variant in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene moderates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and development of antisocial behavior in Caucasian boys; however, it is not known whether this effect also occurs in people from different racial-ethnic groups or with less extreme parenting behaviors. Punitive parental discipline and externalizing behavior was measured for low-income Caucasian and African American boys at ages 1.5, 2, and 5, and antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 15, 17, and 20. Punitive discipline predicted antisocial behavior in males with the low-activity MAOA allele, indicating that harsh parenting practices contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in genetically vulnerable individuals.
Come listen to Luke W. Hyde speak as part of the “Understanding Heterogeneity Within Youth Antisocial Behavior Through Subtyping Approaches” symposium at the 26th APS Annual Convention in San Francisco, CA, USA.
Annette Karmiloff-Smith, B. J. Casey, Esha Massand, Przemyslaw Tomalski, and Michael S. C. Thomas
A constant interplay between genetic and environmental factors leads to gradual changing and specialization of the brain over time. By understanding these influences we can better understand typical and atypical neurocognitive development. Karmiloff-Smith and colleagues describe research that has used a multimethod approach to better understand the influence of socioeconomic status, fear, and anxiety on brain development and to understand the behavioral profiles and regression seen in children with autism-spectrum disorders. These studies illustrate how similar behaviors can be driven by different underlying neural processes and the importance of the timing of environmental and genetic factors in development.
Come listen to Annette Karmiloff-Smith and B. J. Casey speak at the 26th APS Annual Convention in San Francisco, CA, USA. Annette Karmiloff-Smith is also a featured speaker at the inaugural International Convention of Psychological Science.
Elise M. Clerkin, Bethany A. Teachman, April R. Smith, and Ulrike Buhlmann
How similar are the types of implicit-shame associations experienced by people diagnosed with various mental-health disorders? Control participants and participants diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or social anxiety disorder completed several implicit-association tests meant to assess implicit-shame associations related to each disorder (body, obsessive thoughts, speech performance). Implicit-shame associations were disorder specific, with those with body dysmorphic disorder having more body-relevant shame and those with obsessive-compulsive disorder having more shame associated with obsessive thoughts. The findings suggest that people would benefit from treatments addressing the type of shame that is specifically relevant to their clinical group.